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NCERT Solutions Class 8 History Chapter 6 Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners– Here are all the NCERT solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 6. This solution contains questions, answers, images, explanations of the complete chapter 6 titled Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners of History taught in class 8. If you are a student of class 8 who is using NCERT Textbook to study History, then you must come across chapter 6 Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners. After you have studied lesson, you must be looking for answers of its questions. Here you can get complete NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 6 Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners in one place.

NCERT Solutions Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 6 Colonialism and the City

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Class 8
Subject Social Science History
Book Our Past III
Chapter Number 6
Chapter Name  

Colonialism and the City

NCERT Solutions Class 8 Social Science History chapter 6 Colonialism and the City

Class 8, Social Science History chapter 6, Colonialism and the City solutions are given below in PDF format. You can view them online or download PDF file for future use.

Colonialism and the City

Q.1: State whether true or false: 
(a) In the Western world, modern cities grew with industrialisation. 
(b) Surat and Machilipatnam developed in the nineteenth century.
(c) In the twentieth century, the majority of Indians lived in cities.
(d) After 1857 no worship was allowed in the Jama Masjid for five years. 
(e) More money was spent on cleaning Old Delhi than New Delhi.

Ans : (a) In the Western world, modem cities grew With industrialisation. . True. (b) Surat and Machilipatnam developed in the nineteenth century.. False. (c) In the twentieth century, the majority of Indians lived in cities. . False. (d) After 1857 no worship was allowed in the Jama Masjid for five years. True. (e) More money was spent on cleaning Old Delhi than New Delhi.. False.

Q.2: Fill in the blanks: 
(a) The first structure to successfully use the dome was called the _____________. 
(b) The two architects who designed New Delhi and Shahjahanabad were _____________ and _____________.
(c) The British saw overcrowded spaces as _____________.
(d) In 1888 an extension scheme called the _____________ was devised.

Ans : (a) The first structure to successfully use the dome was called the This question is not clear. Note that Jama Masjid was the first mosque in India with minarets and full domes. (b) This question is not clear. Note that Edward Lutyens and Herbert Baker were the two architects who designed New Delhi and its buildings, (c) The British saw overcrowded spaces as unhygienic and unhealthy, the source of disease. (d) In 1888 an extension scheme called the Lahore Gate Improvement Scheme was devised.

Q.3: Identify three differences in the city design of New Delhi and Shahjahanabad.

Ans :

Q.4: Who lived in the “white” areas in cities such as Madras?

Ans : In colonial cities such as Madras, Bombay and Calcutta, the living spaces of Indians and the British were sharply separated. Indians lived in the "black" areas, while the British lived in well laid out 'White" areas.

Q.5: What is meant by de-urbanisation?

Ans : For administrative purposes, the British divided colonial India into three Presidencies, which in turn led to the rise in the importance of the Presidency cities of Bombay, Madras and Calcutta. These cities became the centres of British power in the different regions of India. New factories came up, trade developed. At the same time that these cities were expanding, the towns and cities that manufactured specialised goods declined due to a drop in the demand for what they produced. Old trading centres and ports could not survive when the flow of trade moved to new centres. Similarly, earlier centres of regional power collapsed when local rulers were defeated by the British and new centres of administration emerged. This process is described as de-urbanisation.

Q.6: Why did the British choose to hold a grand Durbar in Delhi although it was not the capital?

Ans : Though Calcutta was the capital of the British, they were aware of the symbolic importance of Delhi. It was the city where the Mughals had ruled. It was the same city that had become the rebel stronghold in the rebellion of 1857, a rebellion that had momentarily threatened the collapse of the British rule in India. It was therefore important to celebrate British power with pomp and show at this very place. So, a grand Durbar to acknowledge Queen Victoria as the Empress of India was held in Delhi, in 1877. Later, in 1911, a Durbar was held in Delhi to celebrate the crowning of King George V. It was at this Durbar that the decision to shift the capital of India from Calcutta to Delhi was announced. What these displays did was to show to the people of India the ultimate power and supremacy of the British.

Q.7: How did the Old City of Delhi change under British rule?

Ans : The Old City of Delhi was constructed as a walled city with 14 gates, adjoining a fort palace complex, with the river Jamuna flowing near it. The city was characterised by mosques, havelis, crowded mohallas, narrow and winding lanes and bylanes and water channels. The British gained control of Delhi in 1803. Before the revolt of 1857 , the British adjusted themselves to the Mughal culture of the Old City by living in the Walled City, enjoying Urdu/Persian culture and poetry, and participating in local festivals. The Delhi College was established in 1792, which led to a great intellectual flowering in the sciences as well as the humanities. However, after the revolt, they embarked on a mission to rid the city of its Mughal past. They razed several palaces, closed down gardens and built barracks for troops in their place. For security reasons, the area around the Red Fort was completely cleared of gardens, pavilions and mosques. Mosques in particular were either destroyed or put to other uses. No worship was allowed in the Jama Masjid for five years. One-third of the city was demolished, and its canals were filled up. In the 1870s, the Westem walls of Shahjahanabad were broken to establish the railway and to allow the city to expand beyond the walls. The sprawling Civil Lines area came up in the North of the city. This was the place where the British began living. The Delhi College was turned into a school, and shut down in 1877. The British constructed a new city, known as New Delhi, South of the Old City. Built as a complete contrast to the Old City, New Delhi became the centre of power. The Old City, meanwhile, was pushed into neglect.

Q.8: How did the Partition affect life in Delhi?

Ans : In 1947, due to the Partition, there was a massive transfer of populations on both sides of the new border. As a result, the population of Delhi swelled (nearly 500,000 people were added to Delhi's population). Delhi became a city of refugees, with people living in camps, schools, military barracks and gardens. The riots accompanying the Partition led to the killing of thousands of people, and the looting and buming of their houses. Over two-third of the Delhi Muslims migrated, and almost 44,000 homes were abandoned. Their places were taken over by Sikh and Hindu refugees from Pakistan. These refugees were mostly rural landlords, lanyers, teachers, traders and shopkeepers. After Partition, their lives changed as they took up new jobs as hawkers, vendors, carpenters and ironsmiths. The influx of Sikh and Hindu refugee population and the outflow of the Muslim population changed the social milieu of Delhi. An urban culture largely based on Urdu was overshadowed by new tastes and sensibilities, in food, dress and the arts.

Q.9: Find out the history of the town you live in or of any town nearby. Check when and how it grew, and how it has changed over the years. You could look at the history of the bazaars, the buildings, cultural institutions, and settlements.

Ans : The City of Delhi: The earliest mention of Delhi is found in the Hindu epic Mahabharata as Indraprastha, The capital of Pandavas. Delhi emerged into prominence after thousands of years when the famous Chauhan ruler Prithviraj II made it his capital in the 12th century. After his decline, Delhi fell into the hands of Muslim rulers. It is said that Delhi was built and ruined several times. Till the sixteenth century the city was built seven times. Shahjahan contributed a lot to make Delhi beautiful. But after the Revolt in 1857 the control of the city came in the hands of British Company. The last -Mughal emperor was exiled. In 1911, it was made the Capital of British India, with the time Delhi had seen many architectural marvel like Qutub Minar, Red Fort, Humayun Tomb, Old Fort, Lal Quila, Jama Masjid, etc. Qutub Minar was made by Qutubuddin Aibak. The Qutub Complex has Qutub-ul-Islam Masjid and famous iron pillar of Chandragupta.Old Fort was made by Sher Shah. Delhi zoo is located next to the Purana Quila on its Southern side. Jantar-Mantar is the symbol of India's scientific heritage. It was built by Sawai Jai Singh in 1724. In the twentieth century Rashtrapati Bhavan was built by Edwin Lutyens. It was basically the residence of the Viceroy of India. It has the famous Mughal Garden. Parliament House was designed by Herbert Barker. It was inaugurated for the first time in 1921. Connaught Place was built in about 1931. It is the biggest commercial area and shopping destination of New Delhi. By and by, these developed many bazaars and settlements in Delhi.

Q.10: Make a list of at least ten occupations in the city, town or village to which you belong, and find out how long they have existed. What does this tell you about the changes within this area?

Ans : List of ten occupations: (i) Agriculture (ii) Animal rearing (iii) Carpentry (iv) Horticulture (v) Pottery making (vi) Trade (vii) Teaching (viii) Weaving (ix) Spinning (x) Fishery. (i) Agriculture: As far as agriculture is concerned, the farmers of my area are using tractor and agricultural machines, in place of bull-pulled wooden plough and small traditional old fashioned tools or agricultural implements. The farmers are using tube-wells in place of traditional ordinary well or charas or leather made buckets. They are using electric pump sets for drawing water for irrigation purpose.Chemical fertilizer is being used in place of manure. (ii) Rearing of Animals: It is being done on large scale. The people have constructed big pukka halls to keep their animals. They have fitted electric fans for buffaloes to provide them cool-air during the summer season. The dairy-farms have facilities of tap-water supply for bathing of some of the milch animals. Medically all animals are checked and injected by the doctors. The rearers of the animals regularly supply milk to big cities and bigger towns of the state or territory. Cheese, curd, bitter, ghee, etc. are being produced and sold in the local as well as outside market. Changes have occurred due to advancement of transportation, communication service and technology, etc. (iii) Carpentry or wood-work: The carpenters are using latest tools, implements and machines useful in this occupation. New types of articles, furnitures, decoration things are being produced and sold in local as well as outside. Day by day the economic position of the carpenters is improving. (iv) Horticulture: Earlier people grew vegetables as per their need. But now they produced vegetables to sell them in the local markets to earn money. (v) Pottery-making: Potters of the village are expanding their industry. They are taking help of latest technique, scientific methods, new designs for promotion of pottery industry of our area. (vi) Trade: Traders have modernized their occupation. They are giving advertisement in newspapers, magazines as well as on the televisions and radios. Day by day the trade is progressing by leaps and bounds. The traders and merchants are exporting different types of Indian products as well as importing Chinese articles. (vii) Teaching: Teachers of our area are using latest books, CDs, VDs and TVs also. They are teaching new subjects such as computing to the students. Latest methods and technique of imparting education are being utilized. Internet is being used for imparting and promotion of knowledge. (viii) Weaving: The weavers are using latest machines, chemicals and dyes for weaving colouring and designing their products. They are exporting their products to different regions of India as well as to other countries due to globalization, liberalization under New Economic Policy of India (which has been followed since 1990). (ix) Spinning: Though some people particularly women are spinning cotton with the old tools, but some are using modern and latest machines for spinning work. It could have happen due to advancement in the field of industrialization. (x) Fisheries: Earlier people in my village did not grow fishes in the ponds for business purposes. But now-a-days many people have started this as an occupation.

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